The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called - phylogeny or phylogenetics
is the study of the evolutionary relationships among organisms
Thus, the study of evolutionary relationships among organisms is called - phylogeny or phylogenetics
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Allopatric speciation by vicariance.
Allopatric speciation by vicaria occurs when two populations of a species are separated by a geographical barrier. This geographical barrier, which can be a gorge, for example, as shown in the question above. This barrier causes a spatial separation. In this case, we say that a geographic isolation has occurred.
When these populations separate, they may come under different pressures as they are in different areas. These pressures, over time, lead to genetic divergence and, consequently, possible reproductive isolation. Many consider this kind of speciation as the main model of speciation.