The correct answer is D.
Lenders give some money to borrowers in exchange for a retribution in the form of interest payments. In some cases, the interest charged is higher because the risk assumed by the lender with a certain borrower is very high. For example, in the case of countries' debt, debt from countries with larger risk of default has a large risk premium attached, which increases the interest that has to be repaid for that debt.
Another method to decrease the risk assumed is to provide secured credits, where the lender requires a collateral from the borrower, than the lender will keep in case of default in the repayments of the principal.
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ExplanCompare and contrast courts of first instance with the two state appellate courts. ... Most courts of first instance use a jury of citizens to determine the innocence or guilt of the defendant. In contrast, the state appellate courts (both intermediate and the state supreme court) use only judges to rule on appeals cases.